Choose Your Own Path
2 Samuel 19:1-8
Do you remember the “Choose Your Own Adventure Books” from when you were a kid? At each turn in the story you could choose how the story would move forward, or even how the story would end. Each day we are faced with the need to make decisions, but we never know what will happen until after we turn the page.
We have to make tough calls just about every day, what if life could be like the introduction of one of the books, “There are dangers, choices, adventures and consequences. The wrong decision could end in disaster – even death. But, don’t despair. At anytime, you can go back and make another choice, alter the path of your story, and change its result.”
Life is not that easy, once you make a choice there are no flipping back the pages. Over the next three weeks we are going to discover how to make the hard calls and how to live with the consequences.
You Choose; Victory or Defeat? (vv. 1-4)
It was told Joab, “Behold, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom.” 2 So the victory that day was turned into mourning for all the people, for the people heard that day, “The king is grieving for his son.” 3 And the people stole into the city that day as people steal in who are ashamed when they flee in battle. 4 The king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice, “O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son!”
Joab has been on the front lines and is leading his men, as one of three generals who are returning, from the victory of defeating Absalom, David’s rebellious son. What should have been victory was turned into mourning.
The soldiers were looking to David to see how they should respond. The soldiers would not have cared if some stranger was upset that Absalom was defeated. They would have celebrated, cheered, and danced because of the joy of defeating the enemy. But they heard that David, the king, was grieving for his son. Any one of these men could have decided not to be apart of David’s army, he was on the run from a vastly superior force – these men chose to fight for a man that they loved – David.
There will be times when people will look to you to see how they should respond. If you allow your emotions to control you, then the result can be tragic.
The custom was that the king would sit in an apartment above the city gate and welcome the troops as they returned – but as the troops are returning, the king is weeping and wailing crying, “O my son Absalom! O Absalom, my son, my son!”
At some point the soldiers first soldiers in formation would have made it to the city gate, and their cheers were hushed by David’s crying. The word was quickly passed back through the troops, “Behold, the king is weeping and mourning for Absalom” Then later as they passed the city gate they would have seen David, through his apartment window with his face covered with a burial cloth and they would have heard him crying.
David has sucked the joy out of the victory by his reaction and actions that he displayed before everyone. His actions actually made the men ashamed of the actions that they had taken. “And the people stole into the city that day as people steal in who are ashamed when they flee in battle.” And, “surely others grieved that day, not for Absalom but for unnamed sons loved even more than the king loved Absalom.”
The men begin to sneak back into the city, as if they were cowards and deserters – but they were the victors and were returning heroes. It is amazing how our attitudes and how we carry ourselves can change so many things. A mother receives her son’s report card and there is a B, “why didn’t you get an A. There’s a dad whose son got a base hit, his dad says, “well, if that’s the best you can do…”
The soldiers went off and fought as a united army, proud of what they were fighting for, but they return one-by-one feeling like traitors. A bad attitude causes division and splinters what was once united. “Probably many others were afraid that David might be planning to punish those who were suspected of violating his order to spare Absalom. Thus, the longer David delayed making a public appearance, the more uncertain became the future of his cause.”
David is playing two roles here. One of a God anointed king, and one of a grieving father. In this situation David could either play one role or the other, but he could not do both. David has to make a choice, either continue to mourn for his son, or play the part of a king.
David is crying out (he does not want to hear what others are saying to him), and his head is covered with a burial cloth (he does not want to see other people, or have them see him) – David wants to be all alone. His role as king demands that he make a public appearance and be joyful, but his heart is mourning the death of his son.
Does David have the right to mourn for his son? How could a father not mourn for his son? There will be times in life when the greater number need you to hold yourself together even hide/conceal your emotions in order for there to be joy in the victory.
David’s warriors were looking to him to know how to act – what did they see? They saw a man broken and completely swallowed up by his own world and the grief in his heart. How do we get out of a hole like that?
2 Corinthians 1:8 “For we do not want you to be unaware, brothers, of the affliction we experienced in Asia. For we were so utterly burdened beyond our strength that we despaired of life itself.”
2 Corinthians 11:23-28 “Are they servants of Christ? I am a better one—I am talking like a madman—with far greater labors, far more imprisonments, with countless beatings, and often near death. 24 Five times I received at the hands of the Jews the forty lashes less one. 25 Three times I was beaten with rods. Once I was stoned. Three times I was shipwrecked; a night and a day I was adrift at sea; 26 on frequent journeys, in danger from rivers, danger from robbers, danger from my own people, danger from Gentiles, danger in the city, danger in the wilderness, danger at sea, danger from false brothers; 27 in toil and hardship, through many a sleepless night, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure. 28 And, apart from other things, there is the daily pressure on me of my anxiety for all the churches.”
How is it that Paul just does not walk away, or quit, or simply to allow these things that have happened to get him down? Paul did suffer pain and separation and a depth of emotions that many of us will never know. He knew what it felt like to be emotionally bankrupt, physically crippled – but instead of sinking into despair – he channeled it into the calling upon his life.
Paul also wrote, Romans 5:1-5 “Therefore, since we have been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. 2 Through him we have also obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 3 Not only that, but we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, 4 and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, . . .
Paul’s suffering became hope. God does not waste suffering (even if you cause it ourselves); if he plows up the ground, he will plant a crop. View and use your pain in a redemptive way. God is going to use the pain that we endure in one area of our lives, for His purposes in another area of our lives. God used David’s loss of his son, to make him a better king.
As a king, David is going to make one more big mistake, but he also has one big accomplishment that makes him a great king. He takes all the pain and the knowledge of the mistakes he has made in his family and channels it into making sure that his son Solomon builds a temple like none the world had ever seen. He set his son up for success.
Whenever we feel life is pulling us in two directions, there is a higher calling upon your life. Channel all the emotion into that calling. For Paul it was being a church planter and apostle. For David it was being king and father to other children. For you it may be your marriage, your children, or your church.
You Choose; Confront or Run Away? (vv. 5-8)
Then Joab came into the house to the king and said, “You have today covered with shame the faces of all your servants, who have this day saved your life and the lives of your sons and your daughters and the lives of your wives and your concubines, 6 because you love those who hate you and hate those who love you. For you have made it clear today that commanders and servants are nothing to you, for today I know that if Absalom were alive and all of us were dead today, then you would be pleased. 7 Now therefore arise, go out and speak kindly to your servants, for I swear by the LORD, if you do not go, not a man will stay with you this night, and this will be worse for you than all the evil that has come upon you from your youth until now.” 8 Then the king arose and took his seat in the gate. And the people were all told, “Behold, the king is sitting in the gate.” And all the people came before the king.
There is another person that needs to make a choice this day. Joab hears about David’s actions and becomes enraged, and overlooks all proper regal protocol, marches right up to David begins a litany of complaints.
David’s emotions have caused him to pull away, and are damaging what he has poured his life into. Joab, on the other hand, is allowing his emotions to fuel his boldness to appear before the king. His anger is channeled into making a wrong situation right.
Joab is placed in a position of needing to try and direct David’s decision making. This is the second time that Joab has come before David for the purpose of getting to change his behavior. In chapter 14:1 Joab hired an actress to come in and tell a story of her two sons who had fought and one killed the other.
But now there is no time for deception or conspiracy – David’s kingdom is hanging on by a thread.
Joab directly confronts David for his behavior. He doesn’t send a messenger, he doesn’t convene with the other generals – he sees the damage and the condition of the troops and he immediately takes action.
He says: “you have humiliated all your men” – or the way that you are treating people is not right. These men have fought for you and your family, and now you are treating them with great disrespect. “You love those who hate you and hate those who love you.”
It’s one thing to rail against someone because you are mad at their behavior. Remember that Joab is among the number of soldiers who had been insulted and humiliated that day. But it is another to point out the wrong and give a potential course of action – Joab says, “go out and speak kindly to your servants.”
He points out not only what he was doing wrong, and a course of action but also what will happen, if he continues to follow this wrong behavior. “I swear by the LORD, if you do not go, not a man will stay with you this night, and this will be worse for you than all the evil that has come upon you from your youth until now.”
Joab points out that if David continues to live his life this way, then he will be all alone. Joab goes and tells David, 1) people who have saved his life, and his family’s life were being rewarded with dishonor. If Absalom had been successful,
“success would inevitably have been followed by the massacre, not only of David himself, but of his sons and daughters, and of the women who had accompanied him in his fight. Nor would it have stopped there, but the officers of his courts, the captains of his army, his mighties, and all who had long cared for and loved him would have been put to the sword.”
2) David is showing hate toward the very people who love him, 3) commanders and soldiers are nothing to him, Joab included 4) if David could, he would bring Absalom back and sacrifice all of them – all of these comments are designed to get David to realize that he cannot bring Absalom back, yet he is surrounded by people who love him and want him to be king.
In order to move into the future, you have to let go of the past.
There was a time later in history, when God’s people had been carried off into exile, then after many years God allowed them to return. Under Nehemiah the people rebuilt the city walls of Jerusalem, and then they set about rebuilding the temple. Ezra 3:11-13 “And all the people shouted with a great shout when they praised the LORD, because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid. 12 But many of the priests and Levites and heads of fathers’ houses, old men who had seen the first house, wept with a loud voice when they saw the foundation of this house being laid, though many shouted aloud for joy, 13 so that the people could not distinguish the sound of the joyful shout from the sound of the people’s weeping, for the people shouted with a great shout, and the sound was heard far away.”
It was the people’s sin that led to the broken relationship with God, the destruction of the original temple, and their being carried off. After David’s affair with Bathseba, and the murder of her husband Uriah, Nathan the prophet came to David and as the consequence of his sin, 2 Samuel 12: 10-11 “. . . Now therefore the sword shall never depart from your house, because you have despised me and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.’ 11 Thus says the LORD, ‘Behold, I will raise up evil against you out of your own house.”
David knows he has played part in his son’s rebellion and eventual death.
In order to move into the future, you have to let go of the past,
even if you played a part in the chaos. Repent and move on.
(v. 8) “Then the king arose and took his seat in the gate. And the people were all told, “Behold, the king is sitting in the gate.” And all the people came before the king” – It doesn’t say he was smiling. It doesn’t say, he even said anything – he got up from mourning and weeping and took his seat as king.
“David’s return to the city gate indicated that he was again available to the people, interested in their needs and concerns. The gateway was where court sessions and public meetings took place. David’s presence there was evidence that he had returned to public life and perhaps that he had taken note of the complaints about lack of access that Absalom had been able to exploit.”
The first step to begin channeling all the pain that is in our hearts is to take the steps necessary for change and allow the emotion to follow later. This morning if you are in pain, or you may be depressed, or suffering in some way – you being here, you getting out of bed and coming to church is a huge first step. We have to do the actions that will become habits, and the emotion follows.
When you feel emotionally bankrupt, get up, take your seat, and do the actions (Bible study, come to church, small group, involved in ministry – and let the emotion follow). It is having a relationship with Jesus Christ that makes life worth living and it is living out our calling that gives us purpose.
Gather, Grow, Give, & Go
“Dear Jesus, I know that I am a sinner and need your forgiveness. I believe that You died for my sins. I want to turn from my sins, I now invite You to come into my heart and life. I want to trust and follow You as Lord and Savior.” In Jesus’ Name.
 R.A. Montgomery. Choose You Own Adventure, Journey Under the Sea (Waitsfield, Vermont; Chooseco), p. 1
 Ronald F. Youngblood, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Volume 3 (Grand Rapids, Michigan; Zondervan Publishing, 1992) 1029.
 Walter Brueggemann, Interpretation, First and Second Samuel (Louisville, Kentucky; John Knox Press, 1990) 324.
 Ben F. Philbeck, Jr., The Broadman Bible Commentary, Volume 3 (Nashville, Tennessee; Broadman Press, 1970)130.
 Joyce G. Baldwin, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, 1&2 Samuel (Dowers Grove, Illinois; Inter-Varsity Press, 1988) 273.
 Nathan had approached David in 2 Samuel 12:1-15 because of his actions.
 Remember that in 2 Sam. 11, it is Joab that receives orders from David to put Uriah in the hardest of the fighting and then withdraw – thereby murdering him.
 R. Payne Smith & C. Chapman, The Pulpit Commentary, 1 Samuel (Grand Rapids, Michigan; Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1984) 465.
 Baldwin, 274. Also see, 2 Sam. 12:22-23.
 Mary J. Evans, New International Biblical Commentary, 1 & 2 Samuel (Peabody, Massachusetts; Henderson Publishing, 2000) 217.
Christmas Stories: Christmas Sermon Series
Simeon’s and Anna’s Story
Back in the 1970’s a research team of psychologists from Stanford University performed an experiment on a group of 4-year-olds that they called, “the marshmallow test.” The kids would be placed in a room—one at a time—with a psychologist who had a bag of marshmallows. The psychologist would ask the child a series of questions or give him certain tasks to do. If the child answered the question or performed the task well, they would get a marshmallow as a reward.
But the real test came with a pre-arranged knock on the door of the room about a half hour later. The researcher would get up and stick his head out of the door, and then he would come back to the table and say to the child, “I’ve got to go run an errand. I’m going to leave a marshmallow here on the table in front of you. If you don’t eat the marshmallow while I’m gone, then when I get back you will get two. But if you eat the marshmallow, it’s the only one you’re going to get.”
Well, the moments that followed were tough for these kids. I’m sure they were, to put it in Thomas Paine’s words, “…the times that try children’s souls.” I mean the marshmallow test is the ultimate soul test for any 4-year-old in that it embodies the constant battle they wage between impulse and restraint, desire and control, gratification and delay. These kids would develop all kinds of strategies to help enable them to wait. They’d sing songs. They’d tell themselves stories. They’d sit on their hands. One little guy actually licked the table around the marshmallow, thinking that perhaps the flavor had somehow spilled over onto the surrounding wood.
But the amazing thing about this marshmallow test is what it revealed about the direction these kids would take later on in life. You see, the research team tracked these kids into adolescence and then into adulthood. They found that those who were able to wait as 4-year-olds grew up to be more socially competent, better able to cope with stress, and less likely to give up under pressure than those who could not wait. The non-waiters—the “marshmallow-grabbers” —grew up to be more stubborn and indecisive, more easily upset by frustration, and more resentful about not getting enough. Most amazingly, the “marshmallow wait-ers” had higher SAT scores that averaged 210 points higher than the group of marshmallow-grabbers. Moreover, years later the study showed the marshmallow-grabbers were still unable to delay gratification. Their poor impulse control was much more likely to lead to delinquency, substance abuse, and divorce.
Well, the truth is all of us struggle with waiting. In fact our inability to control our impulses—our refusal to wait and trust—lies close to the core of human sinfulness. I mean it’s been that way since Genesis 3, when Adam and Eve first took that bite from the forbidden “marshmallow” in the Garden of Eden.
“Simeon and Anna are representatives of real piety in this time of spiritual death and deadness.”
And they had been waiting for a very long time.
A Humble Couple Present (vv. 22-24)
And when the time came for their purification according to the Law of Moses, they brought him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord 23 (as it is written in the Law of the Lord, “Every male who first opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord”) 24 and to offer a sacrifice according to what is said in the Law of the Lord, “a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.”
Our first introduction to Mary, Joseph and Jesus as a family is their carrying out the law. “Jesus came from a family that sought to honor God.” All that Joseph and Mary are doing with regard to the law indicate how seriously Judaism took approaching God in worship and how prepared a heart and soul should have as they address God.
“The law of Moses regarded the woman who had given birth to a child as ceremonially unclean, in the case of a son, for forty days; after which certain purification rites, involving sacrifice, were to be perform, before she could be regarded as ritually clean.”
There was also another ceremony appointed for a first-born son on such an occasion, both mother and child are meant when it says, “their purification,” and these must take place publicly in the temple. We see something similar to this in 1 Sam. 1:24-28 where instead of redeeming her first born son back, Hannah gives up her son Samuel to the Lord, and he serves in the temple with Eli. Mary and Joseph don’t give the redeeming offering, “for the child was not redeemed but rather consecrated to the service of God.”
(v. 24) ““a pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.” The law required a lamb, but of your were poor and could not afford this, then you could offer “a pair of turtledoves or two pigeons.” Christianity begins with a couple who were living in poverty. Jesus would have grown up in a family who were poor.
At the end of Jesus’ time on earth, while hanging from the cross, He is concerned for his mother’s care, and turns to the disciple John and says, “Woman, behold, your son!” 27 Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!” And from that hour the disciple took her to ahis own home” (John 19:26-27).
In Luke 1:46-48 Mary says, “My soul magnifies the Lord, 47 and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior, 48 for he has looked on the humble estate of his servant.” She was not being self-depreciating; their family was genuinely of humble estate. The gifts offered from the Magi of “gold and frankincense and myrrh” had not yet arrived (Matt. 2:11).
So Mary and Joseph are following the law (purifying themselves), to prepare themselves to be the parents of the Savior, they are presenting Him to the God at the temple, and God Prepares two of His representatives to be the hands that receive the Savior.
A Faithful Man of God Receives the Savior (vv. 25-35)
25 Now there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon, and this man was righteous and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him. 26 And it had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ. 27 And he came in the Spirit into the temple, and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him according to the custom of the Law,
Simeon is described to us as being “righteous and devout,” and that the Holy Spirit was upon him, and led him to the temple that day, because we are to believe what he says about Jesus. The focus is not on Simeon, but what Simeon would say about Jesus. This man was told by God that he would not die, until he had seen the “Lord’s Christ.”
Paul expresses a similar attitude in Philippians 1:21-23 “For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. 22 If I am to live in the flesh, that means fruitful labor for me. Yet which I shall choose I cannot tell. 23 I am hard pressed between the two. My desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better.” Here is a servant who only wishes to do what God has called him to do.
28 he took him up in his arms and blessed God and said, 29 “Lord, now you are letting your servant depart in peace, according to your word; 30 for my eyes have seen your salvation 31that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples, 32 a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to your people Israel.” 33 And his father and his mother marveled at what was said about him. 34 And Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, “Behold, this child is appointed for the fall and rising of many in Israel, and for a sign that is opposed 35 (and a sword will pierce through your own soul also), so that thoughts from many hearts may be revealed.”
(v. 28) “he took him up in his arms and blessed God,” and then in v. 34 “And Simeon blessed them” The word used here refers to an arm being bent to receive something. Simeon is physically receiving Jesus, doing something with his hands toward God, and then toward Mary and Joseph – while he is praying and blessing.
Notice Simeon’s words, because he understands two things about this Messiah that Mary and Joseph are hearing for the second time, “a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and for glory to your people Israel.” (one) The salvation that He would bring would be for everyone, Jew and Gentile. This treasure to the Jewish people would be a gift for all of mankind.
(v. 29) “Lord, now you are letting your servant depart in peace, according to your word;” – The word used here for Lord in the original language is not the one normally used. Instead, this word focuses on the relationship between Lord to the servant – a master freeing his slave. Simeon’s release is beginning. “Now” after so long, the servant is freed. Death for Simeon is near, and it is welcomed, like sleep for a laboring man.
(v. 30) “for my eyes have seen your salvation 31that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples,” – What does a person want to see before they die? Today we call it a “bucket list.” A person may want to see their name remembered on a plaque or building, they may want to see their family prosperous, but for Simeon, who was righteous and devout wanted to see the unfolding of God’s promise for His people. He wanted to look upon the face of the Savior of the world.
“Simeon does not say, however, that he has seen the Messiah but rather that his eyes have seen God’s salvation (v.30). To see Jesus is to see salvation embodied in him. . .”
(v. 34) “this child is appointed for the fall and rising of many in Israel,” – (two) Jesus would preach and people would fall in repentance and bow down before God because of their sin, then they would rise up in praise, excitement, because of their pardon from sin, their being justified before God, and adopted as His children.
In another sense, “the fall” “was to happen to the worldly, proud, self-righteous – like the Scribes and Pharisees. While those who were lowly, prayerful, those who sought God, Jesus would rise them up to true dignity, happiness, and glory.
“The falling of some and the rising of others is what is meant. He will be a stumbling block to some who love darkness more than light, he will cause the rising of others.” Judas despairs, Peter repents: one robber blasphemes, the other confesses.” (Plummer). Like a magnet Jesus attracts and repels.
“and for a sign that is opposed 35 (and a sword will pierce through your own soul also), so that thoughts from many hearts may be revealed” – Simeon is telling Mary that when people encounter the Savior their hearts will be revealed. The word used for sword here is the same word used of Goliath’s sword (1 Sam. 17:51).
Jesus will strike or pierce people’s hearts – with a Goliath size sword. Matthew 9:4 “And behold, some of the scribes said to themselves, “This man is blaspheming.” 4 But Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, “Why do you think evil in your hearts?”
(35a) is a parenthesis because it is an aside comment made specifically to Mary. Simeon is telling Mary that Jesus’ ministry is also going to cause her pain. That Goliath sized sword will go through her heart.
It won’t be very long before they make their pilgrimage to the temple where Jesus stays and they return home, (Luke 2:41 ff.), Jesus would be rejected and even hated by the religious leaders of his day, people will try to stone him, throw him off a cliff, and even the family itself will fear for Jesus’ mental state (Mark 3:21).
Simeon is warning Mary that the salvation of mankind and the part that she will play will cost her something. Salvation through Christ is free, but if you want to be apart of the Great Commission to see others saved, then know that you can count on a giant Goliath sized spear going through your heart – you will not escape pain.
Who Simeon was is not known; all that we know about this man is what is mentioned here in these few sentences. There is an inscription on a tombstone, in a soldier’s graveyard in Virginia that reads, “who they were no man knows, what they were all men know.” “Simeon was a God-fearing Old Testament believer, an earnest believer in the Messianic hope, and fervently desiring its fulfillment.”
Simeon is the representative of all the genuine true God-fearing believers who prayed and worshipped, studied God’s Word, and sought to be faithful to Him – and now he is able to see God’s faithfulness and the fulfilment of the Scriptures. Two worlds coming together.
A Devoted Woman of God Praises the Savior (vv. 36-38)
36 And there was a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was advanced in years, having lived with her husband seven years from when she was a virgin, 37 and then as a widow until she was eighty-four. She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day. 38 And coming up at that very hour she began to give thanks to God and to speak of him to all who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem.”
Anna is presented to us by telling us who her father was, her tribe (which makes Simeon stand out even more), and that she had lived most of her life a widow after being married for seven years. There is a good chance that she is over 100, and is known for her ministry of intercession. She is constantly in the temple praying, fasting, and worshipping the Lord.
(v. 37 b) “She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day.” Women were not allowed to spend the night at the temple, so another way to understand this is, “Anna was always at the temple.”
The word for prophetess is used only here and in Rev. 2:20, and in Old Greek it means one who interprets oracles. “Anna possessed divine insight into things normally hidden from ordinary people, and hence was able to recognize who the child in the temple was and then to proclaim his significance to those who were interested.”
Notice that Simeon, was waiting “for the consolation of Israel” (v. 25), and Anna was “waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem” (v. 38). Comfort from the pains of sin, and deliverance from the shackles of sin. They had waited so long to be free, experience true peace, and have that pain soothed by a Savior.
 Archibald Thomas Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament, Volume 2 (Nashville, Tennessee; Broadman Press, 1932) 27.
 Leviticus 12
 Darell Bock, The NIV Application Commentary, Luke (Grand Rapids, Michigan; Zondervan Publishing, 1996) 92.
 John 4:24 “God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”
 George R. Bliss, Mark and Luke, An American Commentary on the New Testament (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; Judson Press, 1950) 50.
 Howard Marshall, The Gospel of Luke, A Commentary on the Greek Text (Grand Rapids, Michigan; William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1978) 117.
 Nunc Dimittis
 Frank E. Gaebelein, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Volume 8 (Grand Rapids, Michigan; Zondervan Publishing House, 1984) 849.
 Robertson, 29. Isa. 8:14; Matt. 21:42,44; Romans 9:33; 1 Pet. 2:16; John 3:19; Rom. 6:4, 9; Eph. 2:6.
 Robertson, 29.
 Marcus Dods, The Expositor’s Greek Testament, Volume One (Grand Rapids, Michigan; Grand Rapids Book Manufacturing, 1967) 475.
 The Hebrew equivalent would be Hannah. (Marshall, 123).
 Robertson, 30.
 Marshall, 123.